Plant Tissue Culture

person-236x300PTC is the science of growing plant cells, tissues or organ isolated from the mother plants (explants) on artificial media under control condition. Plant tissue culture gives distance free, uniform, genetically pure and highly potential plants in large scale in the shortest period of time.

For PTC it is necessary to maintain aseptic conditions. Media and apparatus are sterile in autoclave at 121◦C and 15 lbs pressure for 15 min to rendered aseptic condition. Cleanliness, good sterile technique and attention to keeping your airway clear are the important key for success in any PTC.

Tissue culture cycle grows through the cycle of initiation, multiplication, shooting and rooting. Up to 8 subculture cycles are taken with the incubation period of 4 weeks for each cycle. All these transfer done aseptically in laminar air flow chamber. Generally MS media is used as basal media. Plant tissue culture media are made up of many components. These include inorganic salts, sucrose and some other carbon source, plant growth regulators and vitamins. pH of media is also important feature. pH of media affect both, the growth of the plant and the activity of the plant growth regulators. The cultures were kept under 16 hrs light/day photo period at 25±2◦C and 40-55% humidity is necessary for appropriate growth of plants. Fully aseptic environment is maintained in growth room.

Plant tissue culture is important as it produces disease free and healthy plants as well as it also help in crop and yield improvement.

Banana plantation in India

Banana is the second most important fruit crop in India next to mango. India leads the world in banana production with an annual output of about 14.2 million tones. In India banana ranks first in production and third in area among fruit crops. It accounts for 13% of the total area and 33% of the production of fruits. Production is highest in Maharashtra (3924.1 thousand tones) followed by Tamilnadu (3543.8 thousand tones). Within India, Maharashtra has the highest productivity of 65.7 metric tons/ha against national average of 30.5 tones/ha.

Banana is very popular fruit due to its low price and high nutritive value. It is consumed as fresh or cooked form both as ripe and fresh fruit. Only 0.05% of domestic production is exported and rest is consumed within the country mostly as a table fruit. Maharashtra is principle producing state.